On April 26, 2021 Apple patched CVE-2021-1740, which was a vulnerable function inside the system daemon process cfprefsd (these types of processes usually run in the background and handle system tasks). The bug could have been exploited to read arbitrary files, write arbitrary files, and get root privilege escalation. It was addressed in Apple’s Security Update 2021-002 (Catalina) for a variety of Apple operating systems, including iOS and macOS. However, in early August 2021, Zhipeng Huo, Yuebin Sun, and Chuanda Ding (all from XuanwuLab) presented an exploitation demonstration for the vulnerability during the DEF CON 29 security conference. Their presentation was called “Caught you – reveal and exploit IPC logic bugs inside Apple”.
While studying the slides, I found that the patch for CVE-2021-1740 was still vulnerable to arbitrary file read exploits. Apple fixed this flaw, and on September 20, 2021 assigned CVE-2021-30855 to the second patch.